THINGS TO CONSIDER 
STEPS 



INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 
DEPENDENT VARIABLES 



CONTINUOUS MEASURES 
CATEGORICAL MEASURES 

Sometimes called quantitative variables. Called Scale data in SPSS. Interval scales hold no true zero and may represent values below zero. Zeropoint in an interval scale is arbitrary. For example, the temperature can be below 0 degrees Celsius and into negative temperatures.
Ratio variables are interval variables, but with the added condition that 0 (zero) of the measurement indicates that there is none of that variable. The ratio scale has an absolute zero or character of origin. Height and weight cannot be zero or below zero.

Sometimes called qualitative, discrete, or dichotomous variables. Called Ordinal and Nominal data in SPSS. Ordinal data that has a distinct order. There’s a meaning to the order.
Nominal data are distinct groups with no meaning to the order.

Description  Tutorial Video 

Basic Introduction to the SPSS Interface 

Creating and Coding Variables in SPSS 

Importing, Exporting & Saving other filetypes in SPSS: Excel, CSV, Text 

Select IF Cases allows you to select subsets of cases. Unselected cases are not included in the analysis but remain in the dataset. You can use the unselected cases later in the session if you turn off filtering. 

Split File splits the data file into separate groups for analysis based on the values of one or more grouping variables. If you select multiple grouping variables, cases are grouped by each variable within categories of the preceding variable on the Groups Based On list. For example, if you select gender as the first grouping variable and minority as the second grouping variable, cases will be grouped by minority classification within each gender category. 

The Recode into Different Variables function allows you to reassign the values of existing variables into new values for a new variable. 

Computing variables in SPSS refers to computing with existing variables to create new variables.For example, you may want to add all of the ratings of several questions having to do with shyness to calculate a total shyness score. 

APA Formatting Tips for Tables with SPSS 

VARIABLE TYPE  SPSS  EXCEL 

Categorical 


Categorical 


Continuous 


Continuous 

IV 
DV 
SPSS 
EXCEL 

Continuous  Continuous 


Categorical (≥ 2 groups)  Categorical (≥ 2 groups) 


Categorical (2 groups)  Continuous 


Categorical (1 group with 2 conditions)  Continuous 


Categorical (≥ 3 groups)  Continuous 


Categorical (1 group with ≥ 3 conditions)  Continuous (≥ 3 conditions) 

IV 1 
IV 2 
DV 
SPSS 
EXCEL 

Continuous  Continuous  Continuous 


Continuous (≥ 2)  Continuous 


Continuous (≥ 3) 


Continuous  Continuous or Categorical  Continuous 


Continuous  Continuous or Categorical  Continuous 


Continuous (≥ 1)  Categorical (≥ 1)  Categorical (2 groups) 


Continuous (≥ 1)  Categorical (≥ 1)  Categorical (≥ 3 groups) 


Categorical  Categorical  Categorical 


Categorical  Categorical  Continuous 


Categorical  Categorical  Continuous 


Categorical  Categorical or Continuous  Continuous 


Categorical (≥ 1)  Categorical (optional)  Continuous (≥ 2) 


Categorical (≥ 1)  Categorical (optional)  Continuous (≥ 2) 
